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    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • KOBEĆ Anthony, source: www.russiacristiana.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOKOBEĆ Anthony
    source: www.russiacristiana.org
    own collection

surname

KOBEĆ

forename(s)

Anthony (pl. Antoni)

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Lutsk‐Zhytomyr diocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.catholic-hierarchy.org
[access: 2021.12.19]

date and place
of death

GuLAGGuLAG slave labour camp network
today: name and site unknown

alt. dates and places
of death

1937

ITL SLONGuLAG slave labour camp network
today: Solovetsky Islands, Solovetsky reg., Arkhangelsk oblast, Russia

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.09]
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2024.04.08]

details of death

Arrested on 09.11.1929 by the Russians.

Held in Wołoczyska, Proskuriv, Kharkiv and Kiev prisons.

In the last of the at a trial of 10‐12.05.1930 — of c. 30 Catholic priests, mainly Polish, ministering then in Ukraine — sentenced to 10 years of slave labour in Russian concentration camps — Gulag.

On 27.05.1930 transported to Yaroslav on Volga river prison where was held with a group of c. 30 Polish priests from Ukraine.

From there — despite heart and nervous conditions, rheumatism and anemia — transported to a slave labour camp n. Arkhangelsk.

In 11.1933 transported to ITL SLON Solovetsky Islands concentration camp where was held with his older brother, Fr Adalbert Kobeć, among others.

According to some sources released from Solovetsky Island camp and forced to settle in Armavir (Krasnodar Krai).

Worked there as a guard in factory.

There on 05.07.1941, during World War II, a fortnight or so after German attack on 22.06.1941 of their erstwhile ally, Russians, arrested by the Russians.

On 21.02.1942 sentenced to 8 years of slave labour in Russian concentration camps — Gulag.

Fate thereafter unknown.

cause of death

extermination

perpetrators

Russians

date and place
of birth

1880

Proskurivtoday: Khmelnytskyi, Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi urban hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

1906

positions held

c. 1920 – c. 1925

administrator — Kupiltoday: Kupil hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Starokostiantynivtoday: Starokostiantyniv urban hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
RC deanery

c. 1925

administrator — Bazaliyatoday: Teofipol hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ Holy Trinity RC parish ⋄ Starokostiantynivtoday: Starokostiantyniv urban hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
RC deanery

c. 1919 – c. 1920

administrator — Kupiltoday: Kupil hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary RC parish ⋄ Starokostiantynivtoday: Starokostiantyniv urban hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
RC deanery

1910 – 1919

administrator — Zavaliikytoday: Viitivtsi hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
uk.wikipedia.org
[access: 2023.03.02]
⋄ Divine Providence RC parish ⋄ Proskurivtoday: Khmelnytskyi, Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi urban hrom., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
RC deanery

1907 – 1910

vicar — Polonnetoday: Polonne urban hrom., Shepetivka rai., Proskuriv/Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ St Anne RC parish ⋄ Novohrad‐Volynskyitoday: Zviahel, Zviahel urban hrom., Zviahel rai., Zhytomyr, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
RC deanery

till 1906

student — Zhytomyrtoday: Zhytomyr urban hrom., Zhytomyr rai., Zhytomyr, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Theological Seminary

others related
in death

BIENIECKIClick to display biography Joseph, BORECKIClick to display biography Stanislav, KARPIŃSKIClick to display biography Joseph, KASPRZYKOWSKIClick to display biography Stanislav, KOWALSKIClick to display biography Joseph, KRUMMELClick to display biography Joseph, KUROWSKIClick to display biography Anthony, MADERAClick to display biography Peter, MARKUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Albin, MATUSZEWICZClick to display biography Anthony, MIODUSZEWSKIClick to display biography Joseph, PIETKIEWICZClick to display biography Adolph, PROKOPOWICZClick to display biography Theodore, STRONCZYŃSKIClick to display biography Victor Vincent, STRUSIEWICZClick to display biography Nicholas, SZYMAŃSKIClick to display biography Vaclav, TUROWSKIClick to display biography Maximilian, ŻMIGRODZKIClick to display biography John Joseph, KOBEĆClick to display biography Adalbert

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

11.08.1937 Russian genocide: On 11.08.1937 Russian leader Stalin decided and NKVD head, Nicholas Jeżow, signed a «Polish operation» executive order no 00485. 139,835 Poles living in Russia were thus sentenced summarily to death. According to the records of the „Memorial” International Association for Historical, Educational, Charitable and Defense of Human Rights (Rus. Международное историко‐просветительское, правозащитное и благотворительное общество „Мемориал”), specialising with historical research and promoting knowledge about the victims of Russian repressions — 111,091 were murdered. 28,744 were sentenced to deportation to concentration camps in Gulag. Altogether however more than 100,000 Poles were deported, mainly to Kazakhstan, Siberia, Kharkov and Dniepropetrovsk. According to some historians, the number of victims should be multiplied by at least two, because not only the named persons were murdered, but entire Polish families (the mere suspicion of Polish nationality was sufficient). Taking into account the fact that the given number does not include the genocide in eastern Russia (Siberia), the number of victims may be as high as 500,000 Poles. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.03.14]
)

Great Purge 1937: „Great Terror” (also «Great Purge», also called „Yezhovshchyna” after the name of the then head of the NKVD) — a Russian state action of political terror, planned and directed against millions of innocent victims — national minorities, wealthier peasants (kulaks), people considered opponents political, army officers, the greatest intensity of which took place from 09.1936 to 08.1938. It reached its peak starting in the summer of 1937, when Art. 58‐14 of the Penal Code about „counter‐revolutionary sabotage” was passed , which became the basis for the „legalization” of murders, and on 02.07.1937 when the highest authorities of Russia, under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, issued a decree on the initiation of action against the kulaks. Next a number of executive orders of the NKVD followed, including No. 00439 of 25.07.1937, starting the liquidation of 25,000‐42,000 Germans living in Russia (mainly the so‐called Volga Germans); No. 00447 of 30.07.1937, beginning the liquidation of „anti‐Russian elements”, and No. 00485[2] of 11.08.1937, ordering the murder of 139,835 people of Polish nationality (the latter was the largest operation of this type — encompassed 12.5% of all those murdered during the «Great Purge», while Poles constituted 0.4% of the population). In the summer of 1937 Polish Catholic priests held in Solovetsky Islands, Anzer Island and ITL BelbaltLag were locked in prison cells (some in Sankt Petersburg). Next in a few kangaroo, murderous Russian trials (on 09.10.1937, 25.11.1937, among others) run by so‐called «NKVD Troika» all were sentenced to death. They were subsequently executed by a single shot to the back of the head. The murders took place either in Sankt Petersburg prison or directly in places of mass murder, e.g. Sandarmokh or Levashov Wilderness, where their bodies were dumped into the ditches. Other priests were arrested in the places they still ministered in and next murdered in local NKVD headquarters (e.g. in Minsk in Belarus), after equally genocidal trials run by aforementioned «NKVD Troika» kangaroo courts.

ITL SLON: Russian Rus. Исправи́тельно‐Трудово́й Ла́герь (Eng. Corrective Labor Camp) ITL Rus. Солове́цкий ла́герь осо́бого назначе́ния Ла́герь (Eng. Solovetsky Special Purpose Camp) SLON — concentration and slave forced labor camp (within what was to become Gulag complex) — headquartered in Solovetsky Islands in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Founded on 13.10.1923 in a famous Orthodox monastery. In the 1920s, one of the first and largest concentration camps in Russia. The place of slave labor of prisoners — at forest felling, sawmills, peat extraction, fishing, loading work on the Murmansk Railway Main Line, in road construction, production of food and consumer goods, at the beginning of the construction of the White Sea ‐ Baltic canal, etc. The concept of the later system of Russian Gulag concentration camps prob. had its origins in the Solovetsky Islands camp — from there the idea spread to the camps in the area covered by the construction of the White Sea ‐ Baltic canal, i.e. ITL BelBaltLag, and from there further, to the entire territory of the Russian state. From the network of camps on the Solovetsky Islands — also called the Solovetsky Islands archipelago — prob. also comes the concept of the „Gulag Archipelago” created by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. It is estimated that tens to hundreds of thousands of prisoners passed through the Solovetsky Islands concentration camps. At its peak, c. 72,000 prisoners were held there: e.g. 14,810 (12.1927); 12,909 (03.1928); 65,000 (1929); 53,123 (01.01.1930); 63,000 (01.06.1930); 71,800 (01.01.1931); 15,130 (1932); 19,287 (1933) — c. 43,000 of whom were murdered, including the years 1937‐1938 when c. 9,500 prisoners were transported from the camp and murdered in several places of mass executions, including Sandarmokh, Krasny Bor and Lodeynoye Polye. Among them were many Catholic and Orthodox priests. After the National Socialist Party came to power in Germany in 1933, a German delegation visited the ITL SLON camp, to „inspect” Russian solutions and adopt them later in German concentration camps. It operated until 04.12.1933, with a break from 16.11.1931 to 01.01.1932, when it was part of and later became a subcamp of the ITL BelBaltLag camp. It operated as such until 1939 (from 1936 as a prison). (more on: old.memo.ruClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2024.04.08]
)

Forced exile: One of the standard Russian forms of repression. The prisoners were usually taken to a small village in the middle of nowhere — somewhere in Siberia, in far north or far east — dropped out of the train carriage or a cart, left out without means of subsistence or place to live. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.12.20]
)

Arkhangelsk: Russian forced labour camp for prisoners and POWs. At the same time center of many Russian concentration camp, part of Gulag archipelago of camps, e.g. ITL Yagrinlag, KargopolLag, PPLp KotlasLag, OnetLag. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.08.17]
)

Gulag: The acronym Gulag comes from the Rus. Главное управление исправительно‐трудовых лагерей и колоний (Eng. Main Board of Correctional Labor Camps). The network of Russian concentration camps for slave labor was formally established by the decision of the highest Russian authorities on 27.06.1929. Control was taken over by the OGPU, the predecessor of the genocidal NKVD (from 1934) and the MGB (from 1946). Individual gulags (camps) were often established in remote, sparsely populated areas, where industrial or transport facilities important for the Russian state were built. They were modeled on the first „great construction of communism”, the White Sea‐Baltic Canal (1931‐1932), and Naftali Frenkel, of Jewish origin, is considered the creator of the system of using forced slave labor within the Gulag. He went down in history as the author of the principle „We have to squeeze everything out of the prisoner in the first three months — then nothing is there for us”. He was to be the creator, according to Alexander Solzhenitsyn, of the so‐called „Boiler system”, i.e. the dependence of food rations on working out a certain percentage of the norm. The term ZEK — prisoner — i.e. Rus. заключенный‐каналоармец (Eng. canal soldier) — was coined in the ITL BelBaltLag managed by him, and was adopted to mean a prisoner in Russian slave labor camps. Up to 12 mln prisoners were held in Gulag camps at one time, i.e. c. 5% of Russia's population. In his book „The Gulag Archipelago”, Solzhenitsyn estimated that c. 60 mln people were killed in the Gulag until 1956. Formally dissolved on 20.01.1960. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2024.04.08]
)

Jaroslav on Volga river: Harsh Russian prison for political prisoners — so‐called polit‐isolator — where dozens of catholic priest were held by the Russians, mainly in 1930s, before sending them to Solovetsky Islands concentration camp.

Trial of 10‐12.05.1930: Group trial of c. 30 Polish Catholic priests, one of a series of trials of Polish Catholic priests ministering in Ukraine, by a so‐called «Troika GPU», a Russian murderous kangaroo court that took place in Kiev. Most of the priest were sentences to years of slave labour in concentration camps and subsequently sent first to Yaroslav on Volga river prison and next to Solovetsky Island concentration camp. At least 18 did not return perishing in Russian concentration camps, places of mass executions or being deported to the east.

Kiev (Lyukyanivska): Russian political prison in Kiev, in the first half of 20th century run by the genocidal NKVD, informally referred to as prison No 1, formally as Investigative Prison No 13 (SIZO#13). It was founded in the early 19th century. In the 20th century, during the Soviet times, the prison church was transformed into another block of cells. During the reign of J. Stalin in Russia, more than 25,000 prisoners passed through it. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.09.21]
)

Kharkiv (prison): Russian criminal prison where in the 1930s a number of Catholic priests were held prior to being sent to Russian concentration camps.

sources

personal:
biographies.library.nd.eduClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.05.09]
, ru.openlist.wikiClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

bibliographical:
Lexicon of Polish clergy repressed in USSR in 1939‐1988”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin
Fate of the Catholic clergy in USSR 1917‐1939. Martyrology”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin
Parish priest of Lutsk–Żhytomyr 1801‐1920 and Kamyanets–Podilskyi 1869‐1919 dioceses”, Fr Waldemar Witold Żurek SDB, Lublin 2023
original images:
www.russiacristiana.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]

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