Roman Catholic parish
85 Wiślana str.
Martyrology of the clergy — Poland
XX century (1914 – 1989)
Adolph (pl. Adolf)
Latin (Roman Catholic) Church
more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.09.21]
diocese / province
more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2013.06.23]
date and place of birth
Zabołocie (Lepel reg., Belarus)
presbyter (holy orders)/
minister in Vitebsk (1936‑7) — priest at St Anthony church, f. administrator of Połock parish (1924‑7), f. kapłan parafii Dryssa (till 1924) — ministering also in Czeczersk (1924), Syebyezh, Osvyyei (1922‑4) villages, f. vicar of Dokszyca parish in Borisov deanery (c. 1919) — exposit/branch church in Zamosze, f. administrator and catechist of St Nicholas parish in Luga (1912‑5), f. vicar of Łuniniec (c. 1912) — exposit/branch church in Łuniniec, Poława parishes, f. vicar of Białystok and Maliczewka parishes in Tomsk oblast in Siberia (1909‑11), f. theology and philosophy student at Theological Seminary in Sankt Petersburg (till 1909)
date and place of death
cause of death
details of death
For the first time arrested by the Russians on 03.11.1922. Accused of illegal crossing the Polish–Russian border (it crossed over his parishes boundaries), of hoarding church valuables and anti–Russian propaganda. Thanks to his parishioners intervention and witness statements released but forced to relocate to Połock. Arrested again on 10.01.1927 in Vitebsk. Accused of spying for Poland. On 20.06.1927 sentenced to 10 years of slave labour. On 08.10.1927 jailed in Solovetsky Islands concentration camp, where he slaved as a „gardener and road worker”. In 07.1929 transported to Anzer Island concentration camp. From there managed to smuggle out to Poland a letter, dated 29.06.1930 and addressed to Russian authorities, signed by 32 Catholic priests, describing terrible fate of priests on Solovetsky Islands. In 1932 accused of ministering to the prisoners, i.e. „organisation of formal anti–Russian society”, and on 05.07.1932 had the sentence confirmed and despite prosecutor demanding single cell and total isolation in Yaroslav prison remained in concentration camp on Solovetsky Islands. For a time held in a prison within a camp system. In 10.11.1936 released. Returned to Vitebsk. In 08.1937 arrested again. Accused of membership of Polish Military Organisation POW (a clandestine Polish organization in Russia active during I World War in 1914‑8) and spying from 1925 for Poland. On 20.10.1937 sentenced by „Troika NKVD” Russian genocidal kangaroo court — together with c. 112 other victims tried at the same time — to death and murdered in prison.
alt. dates and places of death
alt. details of death
Possibly tried and murdered in Minsk. According to some sources arrested in 08.1937 in Vitebsk and exiled. Fater thereafter unknown.
others related in death
camps (+ prisoner no)
Judicial murders 1937 Minsk: In 1937 and 1938, during so‑called „Polish operation” — Russian genocide of Polish citizens in Russia — In Minsk, more precisely: in Belarus, a number of trials of Poles, accused of membership of Polish Military Organisation POW (a clandestine Polish organization in Russia active during I World War in 1914‑8) and espionage for Poland. Altogether from 08.1937 till 09.1938 in Belarus 23,429 people, including 21,407 Poles, were arrested. Russian genocidal „Troika NKVD” kangaroo courts had mainly one sentence in their books: death by execution (in Ukraine alone during whole „ Polish operation” 61.77% of sentences were death sentences). Among others on 25.08.1937 in Minsk at least 7 Polish priests were sentenced to death: Fr Constantine Andrekus, Fr Peter Awgło, Fr John Borowikiem, Fr Peter Janukowicz, Fr Anthony Jaczejko, Fr. Alexander Prytułło and Fr Stanislaus Rajko. On 20.10.1937 in Vitebsk Fr. Adolph Fillip was tried. On 22.10.1937 Fr Paul Kaziunas was sentenced. On the same day in Orsha Russians sentenced to death Fr Adolph Kaszczyc. And finally on 03.01.1938 Fr Stanislaus Jaroszewicz was tried. All were murdered in Russian prisons. (more on: pamiec.pl [access: 2019.02.02])
11.08.1937 Russian genocide: On 11.08.1937 Russian leader Stalin decided and NKWD head, Nicholas Jeżow, signed a „Polish operation” executive order no 00485. 139,835 Poles living in Russia were thus sentenced summarily to death. 111,091 were murdered. 28,744 were sentenced to deportation to concentration camps in Gulag. Altogether however more than 100,000 Poles were deported, mainly to Kazakhstan, Siberia, Kharkov and Dniepropetrovsk. (more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.03.14])
Great Purge 1937: In the summer of 1937 Polish Catholic priests held in Solovetsky Islands, Anzer Island and BelBaltLag were locked in prison cells (some in Sankt Petersburg). Next in a few kangaroo, murderous Russian trials (on 09.10.1937, 25.11.1937, among others) run by so‑called „Troika NKVD” all were sentenced to death. They were subsequently executed by a single shot to the back of the head. The murders took place either in Sankt Petersburg prison or directly in places of mass murder, e.g. Sandarmokh or Levashov Wilderness, where their bodies were dumped into the ditches. Other priests were arrested in the places they still ministered in and next murdered in local NKVD headquarters (e.g. in Minsk in Belarus), after equally genocidal trials run by aforementioned „Troika NKVD” kangaroo courts.
Minsk: Russian prison. In 1937 site of mass murders perpetrated by the Russians during a „Great Purge”. After Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the II World War place of incarceration of many Poles, In 06.1941, under attack by Germans, Russians murdered there a group of Polish prisoner kept in Central and co‑called American prisons in Mińsk. The rest were driven towards Czerwień in a „death march” (10,000‑20,000 prisoners perished), into Russia. (more on: pl.wikipedia.org [access: 2013.08.17])
Forced exile: One of the standard Russian forms of repression. The prisoners were usually taken to a small village in the middle of nowhere — somewhere in Siberia, in far north or far east — dropped out of the train carriage or a cart, left out without means of subsistence or place to live. (more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.12.20])
Trial of 05.07.1932: Russian trial of Catholic priests held in Solovetsky Islands and Anzer Island, accused of „creation of an anti–Russian group that conducted anti–Russian agitation, clandestinely celebrated Mass and religious rites and maintained an illegal contact with a free worker for purposes of transmitting abroad information of an espionage character about the situation of Catholics in the Russia”. The prisoners were given prolonged sentences in concentration camp and spread them among the various Gułag camps.
AnzerLag: Russian concentration camp on the Anzer Island on White Sea. On the Island, 47 km2, belonging to Solovetsky Islands archipelago, Russians organised one of the first concentration camps in Russia (part of Solovetsky Islands concentratoin camp). In 1930ties c. 32 Catholic priests were held there most of who perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.12.20])
Gulag: Network of Russian slave labour concentration camps. At any given time up to 12 mln inmates where held in them, milions perished. (more on: pl.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.05.09], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.05.09])
biographies.library.nd.edu [access: 2014.12.20], parafialugarosja.blogspot.com [access: 2014.12.20], cyclowiki.org [access: 2019.02.02], ru.openlist.wiki [access: 2019.02.02], pl.catholicmartyrs.org [access: 2014.12.20], belarusguide.livejournal.com [access: 2019.02.02], www.iwieniec.eu [access: 2012.12.28]
„Fate of the Catholic clergy in USSR 1917‑39. Martyrology”, Roman Dzwonkowski, SAC, ed. Science Society KUL, 2003, Lublin
cyclowiki.org [access: 2019.02.02], belarusguide.livejournal.com [access: 2019.02.02]
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