Roman Catholic parish
85 Wiślana str.
Martyrology of the clergy — Poland
XX century (1914 – 1989)
Servant of God
Theodore (pl. Teodor)
Latin (Roman Catholic) Church
more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.09.21]
Society of the Divine Word (Verbites, Divine Word Missionaries, Steyler Missionaries - SVD)
more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2013.05.19]
date and place of death
„euthanasia” center, Schloss Hartheim - Alkoven, Eferding dist., Salzburg
alt. dates and places of death
31.08.1942 (KL Dachau „death certificate” date)
details of death
After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the II World War, after start of German occupation, arrested by the Germans on 20.05.1940 — according to witnesses for homilies in Polish language and refusal to sign the German nationals’ list, called Volkslist. Jailed in Rybnik prison. From there transferred to a camp in Sosnowiec (or prison in Cieszyn). On 26.05.1940 transported to KL Dachau concentration camp. From there on 16.08.1940 taken to Gusen I concentration camp (part of KL Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camps’ complex) where slaved in quarries. Next on 08.12.1940 brought back to KL Dachau concentration camp. Finally — totally exhausted — transferred in a so‑called „Invalid transport” to TA Hartheim Euthanasia Center and murdered in a gas chamber.
alt. details of death
There is a possibility that prior to final transport to KL Dachau was also a prisoner in KL Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
cause of death
extermination: gassing in a gas chamber
date and place of birth
Drzycim gm., Świecie pow., Kuyavia-Pomerania voiv.
alt. dates and places of birth
presbyter (holy orders)/
23.02.1908 (Maria Enzersdorf)
rector of missionary house in Rybnik (1939‑40), rector of Verbites’ lower seminary in Rybnik (1939‑40), f. parish priest of Wiczówka parish (1939), f. rector of missionary house in Bruczków (1936‑9), f. rector of missionary house in Górna Grupa (1933‑6), f. rector of missionary house in Bruczków (1929‑33), f. Polish language, history, drawing and caligraphy teacher at lower theological seminary in Bruczków (1929‑33), f. vice–provincial of Polish Verbites’ Regia (Regia Ural) (1928‑9), f. friar in missionary house in Górna Grupa (1924‑8) — editor of „Family Treasure” magazine, publisher of „Our Missionary” monthly, spiritual father to Congregations’ brothers, house spiritual councilor, f. missionary–chaplain among Polish–Brasilian emigrees in Curitiba (1922‑4), Santa Barbara (1921‑2), Palmeira (1920‑1), Cruz Machado (1912‑20), Ponta Grossa (1911‑2), Curitiba (1909‑11), f. Polish language and history student at Jagiellonian University in Cracow (1908‑9), f. philosophy and theology student at Saint Gabriel Verbites’ Higher Seminary in Maria Enzersdorf/Mödling n. Vienna (till 1908), novitiate in Saint Gabriel missionary house in Maria Enzersdorf/Mödling n. Vienna (from 1903), in Congregation from 19.08.1901
others related in death
ABT Steven, AKSMAN Julius Felician, ANDRZEJEWSKI Casimir, BĄK John Baptist, BIELOWSKI Joseph, CEPIEL Charles, CHABERKOWSKI Steven, CHYCZEWSKI Joseph, CISZAK Boleslaus, CZAPCZYK Henry, DEMBOWSKI Casimir Marian Anthony, DETKENS Edward, DRZEWIECKI Francis, DYJA Edward, DZIENISZ Leo, FALKOWSKI Theophilus, GABRYELSKI Thaddeus Narcissus, GRABOWSKI Sigismund, GRZESITOWSKI Stanislaus, GRZYMAŁA Edward, GUTOWSKI Leo, GZEL Eugene Henry, HERMAŃCZYK Oscar, JARANOWSKI Boleslaus Ignatius, KAZIMIEROWICZ Henry Maximilian, KLIN Conrad Anastasius, KONSTANTYNOWICZ Stanislaus Peter, KORCZAK Valentine, KOSTRZEWA Nicholas, KOTELA Joseph, KOWALSKI Sigismund Marian, KOZIK Valentine (Fr Cherubin), KRĘCICKI Boleslaus, KRZAK William, KURKOWSKI Leo Paul, LASKOWSKI Henry, MACIEJEWSKI Leo, MAKOWSKI Alexander Czeslav, MĄDRY John, MICHNIEWSKI Stanislaus Thomas, MOLSKI Joseph
camps (+ prisoner no)
TA Hartheim: In Germ. Tötungsanstalt TA Hartheim (Eng. Killing/Euthanasia Center), in Schloss Hartheim castle in Alkoven village in Upper Austria, belonging to KL Mauthausen–Gusen complex of concentration camps, as part of „Aktion T4”, the victims — underdeveloped mentally — were murdered by Germans in gas chambers. In 04.1941 Germans expanded the program to include prisoners held in concentration camps. Most if not all religious from KL Dachau were taken to Hartheim in so called „transports of invalids” (denoted as „Aktion 14 f 13”) — prisoners sick and according to German standards „unable to work” — from KL Dachau concentration camp (initially under the guise of a transfer to a „better” camp).
Note: The dates of death of victims murdered in Schloss Hartheim indicated in the „White Book” are the dates of deportations from the last concentration camp the victims where held in. The real dates of death are unknown — apart from c. 49 priests whose names were included in the „transports of invalids”, but who did arrive at TA Hartheim. Prob. perished on the day of transport, somewhere between KL Dachau and Munich, and their bodies were thrown out of the transport and cremated in Munich. The investigation conducted by Polish Institute of National Remembrance IPN concluded, that the other victims were murdered immediately upon arrival in Schloss Hartheim, bodies cremated and the ashes spread over local fields and into Danube river. In order to hide details of the genocided Germans falsified both dates of death (for instance those entered into KL Dachau concentration camp books, presented in „White Book” as alternative dates of death) and their causes. (more on: ipn.gov.pl [access: 2019.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2019.05.30])
Aktion T4: German euthanasia program, systematic murder of people mentally retarded, chronically, mentally and neurologically ill — „elimination of live not worth living” (Germ. „Vernichtung von lebensunwertem Leben”). In a peak, in 1940‑1, c. 70,000 people were murdered, including patients of psychiatric hospitals in German occupied Poland. From 04.1941 also mentally ill and „disabled” (i.e. unable to work) prisoners held in German concentration camps were included in the program — denoted then as „Aktion 14 f 13”. C. 20,000 inmates were then murdered, including Polish catholic priests held in KL Dachau concentration camp, who were murdered in Hartheim gas chambers. The other „regional extension” of Aktion T4 was „Aktion Brandt” program during which Germans murdered chronically ill patients in order to make space for wounded soldiers. It is estimated that at least 30,000 were murdered in this program. (more on: ipn.gov.pl [access: 2019.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2019.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.10.31])
KL Dachau (prisoner no: 21944, 12748): KL Dachau in German Bavaria, set up in 1933, became the main concentration camp for Catholic priests and religious during II World War: Germans imprisoned there approx. 3,000 priests, including 1,800 Poles. They were forced to slave at so‑called „Plantags”, doing manual field works, at constructions, including crematorium. In the barracks ruled hunger, freezing cold in the winter and suffocating heat during the summer. Prisoners suffered from bouts of illnesses, including tuberculosis. Many were victims of murderous „medical experiments” — in 11.1942 c. 20 were given phlegmon injections; in 07.1942 to 05.1944 c. 120 were used by for malaria experiments. More than 750 Polish clerics where murdered by the Germans, some brought to Schloss Hartheim euthanasia centre and murdered in gas chambers. At its peak KL Dachau concentration camps’ system had nearly 100 slave labour sub–camps located throughout southern Germany and Austria. There were c. 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands perished without a trace. C. 10,000 of the 30,000 inmates were found sick at the time of liberation, on 29.04.1945, by the USA troops… (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de [access: 2013.08.10], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.05.30])
KL Gusen I (prisoner no: 7484): „Grade III” (niem. „Stufe III”) camp, part of KL Mauthausen–Gusen complex, intended for the „Incorrigible political enemies of the Reich”. The prisoners slaved at a nearby granite quarry, but also in local private companies: at SS guards houses' construction at a nearby Sankt Georgen for instance. Initially opened in 05.1940 as the „camp for Poles”, captured during the program of extermination of Polish intelligentsia („Intelligenzaktion”). Till the end most of the prisoners were Poles. Many Polish priests from the Polish regions incorporated in the Germany were brought there in 1940, after start of German occupation of Poland, from KL Sachsenhausen and KL Dachau concentration camps. (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de [access: 2013.08.10], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.03.10])
KL Mauthausen-Gusen: A large group of German concentration camps set up around the villages of Mauthausen and Gusen in Upper Austria, c. 30 km east of Linz, operational from 1938 till 05.1945. Over time it became of the largest labour camp complexes in the German–controlled part of Europe encompassing four major camps concentration camps (Mauthausen, Gusen I, Gusen II and Gusen III) and more than 50 sub–camps where inmates slaved in quarries (the granite extracted, previously used to pave the streets of Vienna, was intended for a complete reconstruction of major German towns according to Albert Speer plans), munitions factories, mines, arms factories and Me 262 fighter–plane assembly plants. The complex served the needs of the German war machine and also carried out extermination through labour. Initially did not have a its own gas chamber and the intended victims were mostly moved to the infamous Hartheim Castle, 40.7 km east, or killed by lethal injection and cremated in the local crematorium. Later a van with the exhaust pipe connected to the inside shuttled between Mauthausen and Gusen. In 12.1941 a permanent gas chamber was built. C. 122,000‑360,000 of prisoners perished. Many Polish priests were held, including those captured during the program of extermination of Polish intelligentsia („Intelligenzaktion”). The camp complex was founded and run as a source for cheap labour for private enterprise. (more on: www.kz-gedenkstaette-dachau.de [access: 2013.08.10], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.03.10], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.03.10])
KL Sachsenhausen: In KL Sachsenhausen concentration camp, set up in the former Olympic village in 07.1936, hundreds of Polish priests were held in 1940, before being transported to KL Dachau. Some of them perished in KL Sachsenhausen. Murderous medical experiments on prisoners were carried out in the camp. In 1942‑4 c. 140 prisoners slaved at manufacturing false British pounds, passports, visas, stamps and other documents. Other prisoners also had to do slave work, for Heinkel aircraft manufacturer, AEG and Siemens among others. On average c. 50,000 prisoners were held at any time. Altogether more than 200,000 inmates were in jailed in KL Sachsenhausen and its branched, out of which tens of thousands perished. Prior to Russian arrival mass evacuation was ordered by the Germans and c. 80,000 prisoners were marched west in so‑called „death marches” to other camps, i.e. KL Mauthausen–Gusen and KL Bergen–Belsen. The camp got liberated on 22.04.1945. After end of armed hostilities Germans set up there secret camp for German prisoners and „suspicious” Russian soldiers. (more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2018.11.18])
EG Sosnowitz: Germ. Polizei Ersatz Gefängnis in Sosnowitz (Eng. Police Substitute Prison Sosnowitz), was founded — on the grounds of Shoen manufacturing plant in Sosnowiec (then part of Germ. Provinz Schlesien — Eng. Silesia Province) — in 10.1939 and operated till 02.1941 (for some time it was prob. call Stalag–Stammlager Sosnowitz). Plant’s building were surrounded with barbed wire and guarded by units of German genocidal SS organisation. The first inmates were Poles, regarded as political prisoners. Altogether c. 1,500 prisoners were held there including c 1,000 Jews from Czech republic and Austria. Prisoners were brutally tortured and their shouts were drowned in music played by inmates on accordions. They slaved in various places in Sosnowiec. The bodies of the dead and murdered were buried at „Pekin” cemetery formerly belonging to town’s hospital (prob. c. 1,500 German murder victims were buried there). The others were transported to concentration camps KL Dachau, KL Ravensbruck and newly constructed KL Auschwitz. (more on: www.tysol.pl [access: 2020.05.25])
Cieszyn: Remand jail run by German political police Gestapo — in the southern part (today: Czech) of town — and investigative prison — in northern (Polish) side, on the other bank of Olza river — run by Germans. In 1940 the prisoners were initially held in Cieszyn jail but next, due to an overcrowding, taken to former Josef and Jacob Kohn furniture manufacturing plant, by Frydecka Str. and Jabłonkowa Str. junction on the southern bank of Olza, where a transit camp was set up. The prisoners — more than 1,000 Poles went through the camp — were interrogated and whipped with horsewhips, prior to being sent to German concentration camps. (more on: www.sw.gov.pl [access: 2013.08.10])
Rybnik: Detention centre run by Germans.
Intelligenzaktion Schlesien: Organised by Germans mainly in 04‑05.1940 planned action of arrests and extermination of Polish Upper Silesia intellectual elite in general recorded in a proscription list called „Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen” — participants of Upper Silesia uprisings, former Polish plebiscite activists, journalists, politicians, intellectuals, civil servants, priests — aiming at total Germanisation of the region. Some of the arrested were executed in mass murders, some where incarcerated in German concentration camps (priests, for instance, were moved to KL Dachau and then to KL Gusen where they slave in quarries) where most did not come back from, some were deported to German‑run General Governorate. Altogether Germans murdered c. 2,000 members of Polish Upper Silesia intellectual elite. (more on: pl.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.05.30])
Intelligenzaktion: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‑called General Governorate where it was called AB‑aktion. During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: pl.wikipedia.org [access: 2016.05.30], en.wikipedia.org [access: 2014.10.04])
Ribbentrop-Molotov: Genocidal Russian–German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the II World War in 09.1939. „The war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti–Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislaus Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German–Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called Intelligenzaktion, in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian–German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.org [access: 2015.09.30])
pl.wikipedia.org [access: 2012.11.23], www.rybnik.pl [access: 2013.05.19], www.ipgs.us [access: 2012.11.23], arolsen-archives.org [access: 2019.05.30]
audiovis.nac.gov.pl [access: 2019.04.16], commons.wikimedia.org [access: 2017.11.07], commons.wikimedia.org [access: 2017.11.07], svdgg.republika.pl [access: 2014.03.10]
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