St Sigismund parish
85 Wiślana Str.
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland
XX century (1914 – 1989)
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Alexander (pl. Aleksander)
presbiter (i.e. iereus)
Eastern Orthodox Churchmore on
diocese / province
Orthodox Warsaw-Radom eparchy
Orthodox Warsaw-Chełm eparchy (Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church PAOC)
date and place
Lipinytoday: a few villages with Lipiny in their names, Potok Górny gm., Biłgoraj pov., Lublin voiv., Poland
details of death
After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and the beginning of World War II, after the start of the German occupation, during the German Aktion Zamość 1942‑3, aimed at displacing Poles from the Zamość region, the Germans deported several neighboring — in relation to Lipinki — villages, e.g. Jedlinki, Potok Górny.
It is not known whether any attempts were made to settle them with Germans or Ukrainians.
At the same time, information about the genocide of the Ukrainian Genocidium Atrox in Volyn began to circulate.
Warned — prob. by the Polish resistance movement.
On 29.07.1943, attacked.
Beaten unconscious with a cane, robbed.
On 02.09.1943 attacked in the rectory.
Pulled out of the house.
Found dead in a nearby forest with „broken legs, arms and eyes gauged out”.
alt. details of death
It is not clear whether the death took place on 02.09.1939 or later, after the second attack.
cause of death
date and place
(+ prisoner no)
Aktion Zamość: On 11.1942, the Germans began Aktion Zamość — a series of forced resettlement, an ethnic cleansing actions of the Polish population and pacification of Polish villages carried out in the Zamość region, in the territory of the General Government occupied by Germans, under the Germ. Generalplan Ost GPO (Eng. General Plan East), i.e. the plan of German settlement and Germanization of territories in Central and Eastern Europe. Until 08.1943, it covered a total of 100‑110 thousand displaced Poles, including 30,000 children (some of them were taken from their parents and semt for a forced Germanization in German families) — most of them passed through the special Germ. UWZ Lager Zamość (Eng. resettlement camp in Zamość), where selection took place, e.g. group IV, children separated from parents. In place of the displaced, it was intended to settle 60 thousand German colonists from Bessarabia, Ukraine, Bosnia, Serbia, Slovenia and Russia. In the first phase (28.11.1942 – 03.1943) 116 villages were forcibly displaced — the displacements were carried out by Germ. Schutzpolizei units or the gendarmerie, with the help of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police collaborating with Germany; in the second, as part of the so–called Aktion Werwolf (06.1943 – 08.1943) — 171 villages — the displacements were supervised by Wehrmacht and Waffen‑SS units, supported by the employees of UWZ Lager Zamość. As a result of the actions of the Polish resistance movement — during the so‑called Zamość Uprising, Polish partisans fought several large battles with the overwhelming German forces — 293 villages were displaced out of the 696 planned. In some villages Germans settled resettled Ukrainians — during the so‑called Ukraineraktion — under control of collaborating with Germans Ukrainian Support Committees among others. (more on: journals.umcs.plClick to attempt to display webpage
Genocidium Atrox: In 1939‑47, especially in 1943‑4, independent Ukrainian units, mainly belonging to genocidal Ukrainian organizations OUN (political arm) and UPA (military arm), supported by local Ukrainian population, murdered — often in extremely brutal way — in Volyn and surrounding regions of pre‑war Poland, from 130,000 to 180,000 Poles, all civilians: men, women, children, old and young. Polish–Ukrainian conflict that openly emerged during and after World War I (in particular resulting in Polish–Ukrainian war of 1918‑9), that survived and even deepened later when western Ukraine became a part Poland, exploded again after the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. During Russian occupation of 1939‑41, when hundreds of thousands of Poles were deported into central Russia, when tens of thousands were murdered (during so‑called Katyń massacres, among others), this open conflict had a limited character, helped by the fact that at that time Ukrainians, Ukrainian nationalists in particular, were also persecuted by the Russians. The worst came after German–Russian war started on 22.06.1941 and German occupation resulted. Initially Ukrainians supported Germans (Ukrainian police was initiated, Ukrainians co—participated in extermination of the Jews and were joining army units fighting alongside Germans). Later when German ambivalent position towards Ukraine became apparent Ukrainians started acting independently. And in 1943 one of the units of aforementioned Ukrainian OUN/UPA organization, in Volyn, started and perpetrated a genocide of Polish population of this region. In mere few weeks OUN/UPA murdered, with Germans passively watching on the sidelines, more than 40,000 Poles. This strategy was consequently approved and adopted by all OUN/UPA organisations and similar genocides took place in Eastern Lesser Poland (part of Ukraine) where more than 20,000 Poles were slaughtered, meeting however with growing resistance from Polish population. Further west, in Chełm, Rzeszów, etc. regions this genocide turned into an extremely bloody conflict. In general genocide, perpetrated by Ukrainian nationalists, partly collaborating with German occupants, on vulnerable Polish population took part in hundreds of villages and small towns, where virtually all Polish inhabitants were wiped out. More than 200 priests, religious and nuns perished in this holocaust — known as „Genocidium Atrox” (Eng. „savage genocide”) The nature and purpose of genocide is perhaps best reflected in the song sung by the murderers: „We will slaughter the Poles, we will cut down the Jews, we must conquer the great Ukraine” (ukr. „Поляків виріжем, Євреїв видусим, велику Україну здобути мусим”). This holocaust and conflict ended up in total elimination of Polish population and Polish culture from Ukraine, in enforced deportations in 1944‑5 of remaining Poles from Ukraine and some Ukrainians into Ukraine proper, and finally in deportation of Ukrainians from East‑South to the Western parts of Polish republic prl by Commie‑Nazi Russian controlled Polish security forces („Vistula Action”). (more on: www.swzygmunt.knc.plClick to attempt to display webpage
General Governorate: A separate administrative territorial region set up by the Germans in 1939 after defeat of Poland, which included German‑occupied part of Polish territory that was not directly incorporate into German state. Created as the result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, in a political sense, was to recreate the German idea of 1915 (after the defeat of the Russians in the Battle of Gorlice in 05.1915 during World War I) of establishing a Polish enclave within Germany (also called the General Governorate at that time). It was run by the Germans till 1945 and final Russian offensive, and was a part of so–called Big Germany — Grossdeutschland. Till 31.07.1940 formally known as Germ. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete (Eng. General Governorate for occupied Polish territories) — later as simply niem. Generalgouvernement (Eng. General Governorate). From 07.1941 expanded to include district Galicia. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
Ribbentrop-Molotov: Genocidal Russian–German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so–called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro–Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti–Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislaus Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German–Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called Intelligenzaktion, in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian–German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
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