• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

personal data

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  • CZURKO Joseph Casimir; source: Fr Joseph Marecki, „Mysterium iniquitatis. Clergy and religious of the Latin rite murdered by Ukrainian nationalists in 1939–1945”, Institute of National Remembrance IPN, Kraków 2020, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCZURKO Joseph Casimir
    source: Fr Joseph Marecki, „Mysterium iniquitatis. Clergy and religious of the Latin rite murdered by Ukrainian nationalists in 1939–1945”, Institute of National Remembrance IPN, Kraków 2020
    own collection

surname

CZURKO

forename(s)

Joseph Casimir (pl. Józef Kazimierz)

  • CZURKO Joseph Casimir - Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg, source: ipn.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOCZURKO Joseph Casimir
    Commemorative plaque, St Stanislaus church, Sankt Petersburg
    source: ipn.gov.pl
    own collection

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Church RCmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Lutsk diocesemore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2013.05.19]

Military Ordinariate of Polandmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.12.20]

academic distinctions

Bachelor of History

date and place
of death

23.06.1941

Lutsktoday: Lutsk city rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]

alt. dates and places
of death

22.06.1941, 24.06.1940

details of death

After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the World War II, in first years of Russian occupation, took active part in clandestine Polish resistance Armed Struggle Union ZWZ organization (part of the emerging Polish Clandestine State — its military arm from Volodymyr‐Volynskyi was incorporated later into 27th Infantry Division of the Home Army AK).

Arrested by the Russians (prob. by the „Ukrainian militia”, collaborating with Russians) in the spring of 1940 in Volodymyr‐Volynskyi, together with his parish priest, Fr Bronislav Galicki.

Held in a prison in Lutsk (in the former Bridgettines' convent building).

Accused of „participating in underground Polish anti–Russian activities”.

On 01—02.11.1940 sentenced to death in a group trial of 35 Poles and held in a death cell.

Murdered in Lutsk prison by the genocidal Russian NKVD organization during the massacre of about two thousand prisoners, just before the arrival of German troops after German attack of their erstwhile ally Russians in 06.1941 — together with aforementioned Fr Bronislav Galicki, Fr Francis Rutkowski and Fr Vladislav Spaczyński.

cause of death

mass murder

perpetrators

Russians

date and place
of birth

07.07.1906

Ostrivtoday: part of Shchyrets, Shchyrets hrom., Lviv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.22]

presbyter (holy orders)
ordination

10.06.1933 (Łuck cathedralmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
)

positions held

1937 – 1940

vicar — Bilyntoday: Ovadne hrom., Volodymyr rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
uk.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.05]
⋄ Exaltation of the Holy Cross RC chapel ⋄ Volodymyr‐Volynskyitoday: Volodymyr, Volodymyr urban hrom., Volodymyr rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
, St Joachim and St Anne RC parish (main parish)Volodymyr‐Volynskyitoday: Volodymyr, Volodymyr urban hrom., Volodymyr rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
RC deanery — also: prefect of elementary schools

1937 – 1939

chaplain — Volodymyr‐Volynskyitoday: Volodymyr, Volodymyr urban hrom., Volodymyr rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.07.31]
⋄ prison

1936 – 1937

chaplain — Maciejówtoday: Lukiv, Lukiv hrom., Kovel rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.04.17]
⋄ Congregation's house, Immaculate Conception Sisters CSIC ⋄ St Stanislav the Bishop and Martyr and St Anne RC parish ⋄ Lyubomltoday: Lyuboml urban hrom., Kovel rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.07.17]
RC deanery

1933 – 1936

student — Rometoday: Rome prov., Lazio reg., Italy
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
⋄ history

c. 1928 – 1933

student — Lutsktoday: Lutsk city rai., Volyn, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.09.17]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Theological Seminary

c. 1926 – c. 1928

student — Lvivtoday: Lviv urban hrom., Lviv rai., Lviv, Ukraine
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2022.01.16]
⋄ philosophy and theology, Metropolitan Theological Seminary

others related
in death

GALICKIClick to display biography Bronislav, RUTKOWSKIClick to display biography Francis, SZPACZYŃSKIClick to display biography Vladislav, TOKARZEWSKIClick to display biography Marian

murder sites
camp 
(+ prisoner no)

06.1941 massacres (NKVD): After German attack of Russian‐occupied Polish territory and following that of Russia itself, before a panic escape, Russians murdered — in accordance with the genocidal order issued on 24.06.1941 by the Russian interior minister Lawrence Beria to murder all prisoners (formally „sentenced” for „counter‐revolutionary activities”, „anti‐Russian acts”, sabotage and diversion, and political prisoners „in custody”), held in NKVD‐run prisons in Russian occupied Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia — c. 40,000‐50,000 prisoners. In addition Russians murdered many thousands of victims arrested after German attack regarding them as „enemies of people” — those victims were not even entered into prisons’ registers. Most of them were murdered in massacres in the prisons themselves, the others during so‐called „death marches” when the prisoners were driven out east. After Russians departure and start of German occupation a number of spontaneous pogroms of Jews took place. Many Jews collaborated with Russians and were regarded as co‐responsible for prison massacres. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
)

Lutsk: Prison run in 1939‐1941 by the Russians. After German attack in 06.1941 Russians murdered there approx. 2,000 prisoners. Again used by the Russians after 1944. (more on: pl.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2017.03.11]
)

Trial of 01‐02.11.1940: On 01—02.11.1940 (according to other sources on 31.10.1940 or 09.11.1940) 35 Poles were sentenced to death by Rosjan in group trial in Lutsk for „active and insidious anti‐Soviet activity, forming a [clandestine] organization and forging a conspiracy to forcibly detach of Volyn from [Russia]”. Among them were at least 6 Catholic priests. At least one of them prob. had a sentence commuted to slave labour in Russian concentration camps Gulag — perished during the transport to the camps. Prob. four were murdered by Russians during genocide massacre of c. 2,000 Lutsk prisoners after German attack of Russians in 06.1941. One survived under a pile of slaughtered lifeless bodies… (more on: katolicy1844.republika.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2021.12.19]
)

Ribbentrop‐Molotov: Genocidal Russian‐German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the World War II in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so‐called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro‐Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti‐Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislav Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German‐Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called «Intelligenzaktion», in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian‐German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Pius XI's encyclicals: Facing the creation of two totalitarian systems in Europe, which seemed to compete with each other, though there were more similarities than contradictions between them, Pope Pius XI issued in 03.1937 (within 5 days) two encyclicals. In the „Mit brennender Sorge” (Eng. „With Burning Concern”) published on 14.03.1938, condemned the national socialism prevailing in Germany. The Pope wrote: „Whoever, following the old Germanic‐pre‐Christian beliefs, puts various impersonal fate in the place of a personal God, denies the wisdom of God and Providence […], whoever exalts earthly values: race or nation, or state, or state system, representatives of state power or other fundamental values of human society, […] and makes them the highest standard of all values, including religious ones, and idolizes them, this one […] is far from true faith in God and from a worldview corresponding to such faith”. On 19.03.1937, published „Divini Redemptoris” (Eng. „Divine Redeemer”), in which criticized Russian communism, dialectical materialism and the class struggle theory. The Pope wrote: „Communism deprives man of freedom, and therefore the spiritual basis of all life norms. It deprives the human person of all his dignity and any moral support with which he could resist the onslaught of blind passions […] This is the new gospel that Bolshevik and godless communism preaches as a message of salvation and redemption of humanity”… Pius XI demanded that the established human law be subjected to the natural law of God , recommended the implementation of the ideal of a Christian state and society, and called on Catholics to resist. Two years later, National Socialist Germany and Communist Russia came together and started World War II. (more on: www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
, www.vatican.vaClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2023.05.28]
)

sources

personal:
www.duszki.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, www.klub-generalagrota.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2012.11.23]
, www.mariadebowska.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.08.05]

bibliographical:
Martyrology of the Polish Roman Catholic clergy under nazi occupation in 1939‐1945”, Victor Jacewicz, John Woś, vol. I‐V, Warsaw Theological Academy, 1977‐1981
Register of Latin rite Lviv metropolis clergy’s losses in 1939‐45”, Józef Krętosz, Maria Pawłowiczowa, editors, Opole, 2005
Biographical lexicon of Lviv Roman Catholic Metropoly clergy victims of the II World War 1939‐1945”, Mary Pawłowiczowa (ed.), Fr Joseph Krętosz (ed.), Holy Cross Publishing, Opole, 2007
Mysterium iniquitatis. Clergy and religious of the Latin rite murdered by Ukrainian nationalists in 1939‐1945”, Fr Józef Marecki, Institute of National Remembrance IPN, Kraków 2020
original images:
ipn.gov.plClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2019.02.02]

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