• OUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA: st Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionOUR LADY of CZĘSTOCHOWA
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
link to OUR LADY of PERPETUAL HELP in SŁOMCZYN infoSITE LOGO

Roman Catholic
St Sigismund parish
05-507 Słomczyn
85 Wiślana Str.
Konstancin deanery
Warsaw archdiocese, Poland

  • St SIGISMUND: St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
  • St SIGISMUND: XIX c., feretory, St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland; source: own collectionSt SIGISMUND
    XIX c., feretory
    St Sigismund parish church, Słomczyn, Poland
    source: own collection
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Martyrology of the clergy — Poland

XX century (1914 – 1989)

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  • PUTZ Narcissus, source: www.santiebeati.it, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: www.santiebeati.it
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus; source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - 14-19.06.1931, Poznań, source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    14-19.06.1931, Poznań
    source: audiovis.nac.gov.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus, source: www.surma.org.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: www.surma.org.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - c. 1926, source: www.wbc.poznan.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    c. 1926
    source: www.wbc.poznan.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus, source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: www.wtg-gniazdo.org
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus; source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus; source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus; source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus, source: www.parafia.sierakow.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: www.parafia.sierakow.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus, source: kujawsko-pomorskie.regiopedia.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    source: kujawsko-pomorskie.regiopedia.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Contemporary painting, Oleksiak George, St Adalbert church, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Contemporary painting, Oleksiak George, St Adalbert church, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Contemporary image; source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Contemporary image
    source: Fr Vaclav Maliński (1912-1966) collection – thanks to Mr Andrew Maliński's kindness (private correspondence, 04.05.2017)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - camp drawing, KL Dachau, author unknown; source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    camp drawing, KL Dachau, author unknown
    source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021)
    own collection

religious status

blessed

surname

PUTZ

forename(s)

Narcissus (pl. Narcyz)

  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert church, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert church, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert church, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert church, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Monument, Międzychód, source: www.polskaniezwykla.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Monument, Międzychód
    source: www.polskaniezwykla.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert Bookshop, Poznań; source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021), own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plaque, St Adalbert Bookshop, Poznań
    source: „Bibliography of St Adalbert Bookshop publications 1895—1969. On 75th anniversary of the publishing house”, Boleslaus Żynda (ed.), Poznań-Warszawa-Lublin 1970; thanks to Mr Andrew Malinski's kindness (private correspondence, 03.03.2021)
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plaque, Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Underground Resistance State monument, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plaque, church, Sieraków, source: www.parafia.sierakow.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plaque, church, Sieraków
    source: www.parafia.sierakow.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Martyrs of the II World War Monument, St John the Baptist church, Szczecin, source: www.szczecin.pl, own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Martyrs of the II World War Monument, St John the Baptist church, Szczecin
    source: www.szczecin.pl
    own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection
  • PUTZ Narcissus - Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań, source: own collection; CLICK TO ZOOM AND DISPLAY INFOPUTZ Narcissus
    Commemorative plague, altar, Martyrs' Chapel, St Peter and St Paul cathedral, Poznań
    source: own collection

beatification date

13.06.1999more on
www.swzygmunt.knc.pl
[access: 2013.05.19]

John Paul IImore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

function

diocesan priest

creed

Latin (Roman Catholic) Churchmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.09.21]

diocese / province

Gniezno and Poznań archdiocese (aeque principaliter)more on
www.archpoznan.pl
[access: 2012.11.23]

honorary titles

Ad Honores Spiritual Counselor
honorary canonmore on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
(Poznań cathedralmore on
pl.wikipedia.org
[access: 2014.11.14]
)

date and place of death

04.12.1942

KL Dachauconcentration camp
today: Dachau, Upper Bavaria reg., Bavaria state, Germany

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2016.05.30]

alt. dates and places of death

05.12.1942

details of death

In 1910 fined by Prussian court for organising of Polish national poet Julius Słowacki 100 birth anniversary commemorations in Szamotuły.

During Greater Poland Uprising of 1918‑9 organiser of insurgents' units participating at liberation of Inowrocław from German rule.

After After German and Russian invasion of Poland in 09.1939 and start of the II World War, after start of German occupation, for the first time arrested by the Germans on 04.10.1939 in Warsaw.

Held in Pawiak prison.

Released on 17.10.1939.

Returned to Poznań.

There arrested again on 09.11.1939.

Jailed in KL Posen (Fort VII) concentration camp, harassed.

On 24.04.1940 moved to KL Dachau concentration camp.

From there on 06.06.1940 transported to KL Gusen I concentration camp — part of KL Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camps' complex — where slaved in quarries.

Finally on 08.12.1940 — totally exhausted — brought back to KL Dachau concentration camp where perished.

cause of death

extermination: exhaustion and starvation

perpetrators

Germans

date and place of birth

28.10.1877

Sierakówtoday: Sieraków gm., Międzychód pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]

presbyter (holy orders)/
ordination

15.12.1901 (Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
)

positions held

1925 – 1939

parish priest {parish: Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Adalbert the Bishop and Martyr; dean.: Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
}

1924 – 1925

parish priest {parish: Bydgoszcztoday: Bydgoszcz city pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
, Sacred Heart of Jesus; dean.: Bydgoszcz–citydeanery name
today: Bydgoszcz city pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
}

1920 – 1924

curatus/rector/expositus {parish: Bydgoszcztoday: Bydgoszcz city pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
, St Martin and St Nicholas the Bishops and Confessors; church: Sacred Heart of Jesus; dean.: Bydgoszcz–citydeanery name
today: Bydgoszcz city pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland

more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
}

1918 – 1920

parish priest {parish: Ludziskotoday: Janikowo gm., Inowrocław pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Nicholas the Bishop and Confessor; dean.: Żnintoday: Żnin gm., Żnin pow., Kuyavia–Pomerania voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
}

1914 – 1918

parish priest {parish: Mądretoday: Zaniemyśl gm., Środa Wielkopolska pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Hedwig of Silesia; dean.: Środatoday: Środa Wielkopolska, Środa Wielkopolska gm., Środa Wielkopolska pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
}

1913 – 1914

administrator {parish: Wronkitoday: Wronki gm., Szamotuły pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
, St Catherine the Virgin and Martyr; dean.: Wronkitoday: Wronki gm., Szamotuły pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
}

1903 – 1913

vicar {parish: Szamotułytoday: Szamotuły gm., Szamotuły pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.06.20]
, St Stanislaus the Bishop and Martyr; dean.: Obornikitoday: Oborniki gm., Oborniki pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
}

1903

vicar {parish: Obrzyckotoday: Obrzycko urban gm., Szamotuły pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Peter and St Paul the Apostles; dean.: Obornikitoday: Oborniki gm., Oborniki pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
}

1902 – 1903

vicar {parish: Boruszyntoday: Połajewo gm., Czarnków/Trzcianka pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, St Andrew the Apostle; dean.: Obornikitoday: Oborniki gm., Oborniki pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2020.11.27]
}

till 1902

student {Gnieznotoday: Gniezno urban gm., Gniezno pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.12.18]
, philosophy and theology, Practical Theological Seminary (Lat. Seminarium Clericorum Practicum)}

from 1898

student {Poznańtoday: Poznań city pow., Greater Poland voiv., Poland
more on
en.wikipedia.org
[access: 2021.07.18]
, philosophy and theology, Theological Seminary (Collegium Leoninum)}

biography (own resources)

Click to read biography details from our resourcesClick to read biography details from our resources

murder sites
camps (+ prisoner no)

KL Dachau (prisoner no: 22064Click to display biography): KL Dachau in German Bavaria, set up in 1933, became the main concentration camp for Catholic priests and religious during II World War: On c. 09.11.1940, Reichsführer–SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, Gestapo and German police, as a result of the Vatican's intervention, decided to transfer all clergymen detained in various concentration camps to KL Dachau camp. The first major transports took place on 08.12.1940. In KL Dachau Germans held approx. 3,000 priests, including 1,800 Poles. They were forced to slave at so‑called „Plantags”, doing manual field works, at constructions, including crematorium. In the barracks ruled hunger, freezing cold in the winter and suffocating heat during the summer. Prisoners suffered from bouts of illnesses, including tuberculosis. Many were victims of murderous „medical experiments” — in 11.1942 c. 20 were given phlegmon injections; in 07.1942 to 05.1944 c. 120 were used by for malaria experiments. More than 750 Polish clerics where murdered by the Germans, some brought to Schloss Hartheim euthanasia centre and murdered in gas chambers. At its peak KL Dachau concentration camps’ system had nearly 100 slave labour sub–camps located throughout southern Germany and Austria. There were c. 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands perished without a trace. C. 10,000 of the 30,000 inmates were found sick at the time of liberation, on 29.04.1945, by the USA troops… (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.05.30]
)

KL Gusen I: „Grade III” (niem. „Stufe III”) camp, part of KL Mauthausen–Gusen complex, intended for the „Incorrigible political enemies of the Reich”. The prisoners slaved at a nearby granite quarry, but also in local private companies: at SS guards houses' construction at a nearby Sankt Georgen for instance. Initially opened in 05.1940 as the „camp for Poles”, captured during the program of extermination of Polish intelligentsia („Intelligenzaktion”). Till the end most of the prisoners were Poles. Many Polish priests from the Polish regions incorporated in the Germany were brought there in 1940, after start of German occupation of Poland, from KL Sachsenhausen and KL Dachau concentration camps. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.03.10]
)

KL Mauthausen-Gusen: A large group of German concentration camps set up around the villages of Mauthausen and Gusen in Upper Austria, c. 30 km east of Linz, operational from 1938 till 05.1945. Over time it became of the largest labour camp complexes in the German–controlled part of Europe encompassing four major camps concentration camps (Mauthausen, Gusen I, Gusen II and Gusen III) and more than 50 sub–camps where inmates slaved in quarries (the granite extracted, previously used to pave the streets of Vienna, was intended for a complete reconstruction of major German towns according to Albert Speer plans), munitions factories, mines, arms factories and Me 262 fighter–plane assembly plants. The complex served the needs of the German war machine and also carried out extermination through labour. Initially did not have a its own gas chamber and the intended victims were mostly moved to the infamous Hartheim Castle, 40.7 km east, or killed by lethal injection and cremated in the local crematorium. Later a van with the exhaust pipe connected to the inside shuttled between Mauthausen and Gusen. In 12.1941 a permanent gas chamber was built. C. 122,000‑360,000 of prisoners perished. Many Polish priests were held, including those captured during the program of extermination of Polish intelligentsia („Intelligenzaktion”). The camp complex was founded and run as a source for cheap labour for private enterprise. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.03.10]
)

KL Posen: German Posen — Fort VII — camp founded in c. 10.10.1939 in Poznań till mid of 11.1939 operated formally as KL Posen concentration camp (Germ. Konzentrationslager), and this term is used throughout the White Book, also later periods. It was first such a concentration camp set up by the Germans on Polish territory — in case of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) directly incorporated into German Reich. In 10.1939 in KL Posen for the first time Germans used gas to murder civilian population, in particular patients of local psychiatric hospitals. From 11.1939 the camp operated as German political police Gestapo prison and transit camp (Germ. Übergangslager), prior to sending off to concentration camps, such as KL Dachau or KL Auschwitz. In 28.05.1941 the camp was rebranded as police jail and slave labour corrective camp (Germ. Arbeitserziehungslager). At its peak up to 7‑9 executions were carried in the camp per day, there were mass hangings of the prisoners and some of them were led out to be murdered elsewhere, outside of the camp. Altogether in KL Posen Germans exterminated approx. 20,000 inhabitants of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) region, including many representatives of Polish intelligentsia, patients and staff of psychiatric hospitals and dozen or so Polish priests. Hundreds of priests were held there temporarily prior to transport to other concentration camps, mainly KL Dachau. From 03.1943 the camp had been transformed into an industrial complex (from 25.04.1944 — Telefunken factory manufacturing radios for submarines and aircrafts). (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2013.12.27]
)

Pawiak: Investigative prison in Warsaw, built by the Russian occupiers of Poland in 1830‑5. During the Poland partition's period, a Russian investigative prison, both criminal and political. During World War II and the German occupation, the largest German prison in the General Government. Initially, it was subordinate to the Justice Department of the General Governorate, and from 03.1940 Germ. Sicherheitspolizei und des Sicherheitsdienst (Eng. Security Police and Security Service) of the Warsaw District — in particular the German Secret Political Police Gestapo. c. 3,000 prisoners were kept in Pawiak permanently, of which about 2,200 in the men's unit and c. 800 in the women's unit (the so‑called Serbia) — with a „capacity” of c. 1,000 prisoners. In total, in the years 1939–1944, c. 100,000 Poles passed through the prison, of which c. 37,000 were murdered in executions — from 10.1943 Pawiak prisoners were murdered in open executions on the streets of Warsaw (sometimes several times a day) — during interrogations, in cells or in a prison „hospital”, and c. 60,000 were taken in 95 transports to concentration camps (mainly KL Auischwitz), other places of isolation or to forced labor. The prison Germans demolished during the Warsaw Uprising in 08‑10.1944. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2022.08.17]
)

Intelligenzaktion: (Eng. „Action Intelligentsia”) — extermination program of Polish elites, mainly intelligentsia, executed by the Germans right from the start of the occupation in 09.1939 till around 05.1940, mainly on the lands directly incorporated into Germany but also in the so‑called General Governorate where it was called AB‑aktion. During the first phase right after start of German occupation of Poland implemented as Germ. Unternehmen „Tannenberg” (Eng. „Tannenberg operation”) — plan based on proscription lists of Poles worked out by (Germ. Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen), regarded by Germans as specially dangerous to the German Reich. List contained names of c. 61,000 Poles. Altogether during this genocide Germans methodically murdered c. 50,000 teachers, priests, landowners, social and political activists and retired military. Further 50,000 were sent to concentration camps where most of them perished. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2014.10.04]
)

Air raids 1939: During invasion of Poland commenced on 01.09.1939 Germans systematically attacked civilian targets. Many cities (Wieluń, Frampol, Warszawa, Lwów, Łomża, Puck, etc.) were bombed during air raids and totally destroyed. The hospitals and churches, visibly marked as such, were not spared. German planes also attacked columns of fleeing people on the roads, massacring them. It is estimated that c. 150,000–200,000 civilians were killed or murdered by the Germans in 09.1939. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.04.18]
)

Ribbentrop-Molotov: Genocidal Russian–German alliance pact between Russian leader Joseph Stalin and German leader Adolf Hitler signed on 23.08.1939 in Moscow by respective foreign ministers, Mr. Vyacheslav Molotov for Russia and Joachim von Ribbentrop for Germany. The pact sanctioned and was the direct cause of joint Russian and German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the II World War in 09.1939. In a political sense, the pact was an attempt to restore the status quo ante before 1914, with one exception, namely the „commercial” exchange of the so–called „Kingdom of Poland”, which in 1914 was part of the Russian Empire, fore Eastern Galicia (today's western Ukraine), in 1914 belonging to the Austro–Hungarian Empire. Galicia, including Lviv, was to be taken over by the Russians, the „Kingdom of Poland” — under the name of the General Governorate — Germany. The resultant „war was one of the greatest calamities and dramas of humanity in history, for two atheistic and anti–Christian ideologies — national and international socialism — rejected God and His fifth Decalogue commandment: Thou shall not kill!” (Abp Stanislaus Gądecki, 01.09.2019). The decisions taken — backed up by the betrayal of the formal allies of Poland, France and Germany, which on 12.09.1939, at a joint conference in Abbeville, decided not to provide aid to attacked Poland and not to take military action against Germany (a clear breach of treaty obligations with Poland) — were on 28.09.1939 slightly altered and made more precise when a treaty on „German–Russian boundaries and friendship” was agreed by the same murderous signatories. One of its findings was establishment of spheres of influence in Central and Eastern Europe and in consequence IV partition of Poland. In one of its secret annexes agreed, that: „the Signatories will not tolerate on its respective territories any Polish propaganda that affects the territory of the other Side. On their respective territories they will suppress all such propaganda and inform each other of the measures taken to accomplish it”. The agreements resulted in a series of meeting between two genocidal organization representing both sides — German Gestapo and Russian NKVD when coordination of efforts to exterminate Polish intelligentsia and Polish leading classes (in Germany called Intelligenzaktion, in Russia took the form of Katyń massacres) where discussed. Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Polish intelligentsia, including thousands of priests presented here, and tens of millions of ordinary people,. The results of this Russian–German pact lasted till 1989 and are still in evidence even today. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2015.09.30]
)

Greater Poland Uprising: Military insurrection of Poles living in Posen Provinz (Eng. Poznań province) launched against German Reich in 1918‑9 aiming to incorporate lands captured by Prussia during partitions of Poland in XVIII century into Poland, reborn in 1918. Started on 27.12.1918 in Poznań and finished with total Polish victory on 16.02.1919 by a ceasefire in Trier. Many Polish priests took part in the Uprising, both as chaplains of the insurgents units and members and leaders of the Polish agencies and councils set up in the areas covered by the Uprising. In 1939 after German invasion of Poland and start of the II World war those priests were particularly persecuted by the Germans and majority of them were murdered. (more on: en.wikipedia.orgClick to attempt to display webpage
[access: 2016.08.14]
)

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[access: 2014.09.21]

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